A little over six years ago, a group of doe-eyed Web developers, technologists, and economists decided that the way we send and receive money over the Web was fundamentally broken and needed to be fixed. The tiring dance of filling out your personal details on every website you visited seemed archaic. This was especially true when handing over your debit card number, which is basically a password into your bank account, to any fly by night operation that had something you wanted to buy. It took days to send money where an email would take milliseconds. Even with the advent of Bitcoin, not much has changed since 2007.
At the time, we naively thought that it wouldn’t take long for the technology industry to catch on to this problem and address it like they’ve addressed many of the other issues around publishing and communication over the Web. After all, getting paid and paying for services is something all of us do as a fundamental part of modern day living. Change didn’t come as fast as we had hoped. So we kept our heads down and worked for years gathering momentum to address this issue on the Web. I’m happy to say that we’ve just had a breakthrough.
The first ever W3C Web Payments Workshop happened two weeks ago. It was a success. Through it, we have taken significant steps toward a better future for the Web and those that make a living by using it. This is the story of how we got from there to here, what the near future looks like, and the broad implications this work has for the Web.
TL;DR: The W3C Web Payments Workshop was a success, we’re moving toward standardizing some technologies around the way we send and receive money on the Web; join the Web Payments Community Group if you want to find out more.
Primordial Web Payment Soup
In late 2007, our merry little band of collaborators started piecing together bits of the existing Web platform in an attempt to come up with something that could be standardized. After a while, it became painfully obvious that the Web Platform was missing some fundamental markup and security technologies. For example, there was no standard machine-readable or automate-able way of describing an item for sale on the Web. This meant that search engines can’t index all the things on the Web that are offered for sale. It also meant that all purchasing decisions had to be made by people. You couldn’t tell your Web browser something like “I trust the New York Times, let them charge me $0.05 per article up to $10 per month for access to their website”. Linked Data seemed like the right solution for machine-readable products, but the Linked Data technologies at the time seemed mired in complex, draconian solutions (SOAP, XML, XHTML, etc.): the bane of most Web Developers.
We became involved in the Microformats community and in the creation of technologies like RDFa in the hope that we could apply it to the Web Payments work. When it became apparent that RDFa was only going to solve part of the problem (and potentially produce a new set of problems), we created JSON-LD and started to standardize it through the W3C.
As these technologies started to grow out of the need to support payments on the Web, it became apparent that we needed to get more people from the general public, government, policy, traditional finance, and technology sectors involved.
Founding a Payment Incubator for the Web
We needed to build a movement around the Web Payments work and the founding of a community was the first step in that movement. In 2009, we founded the PaySwarm Community and worked on the technologies related to payments on the Web with a handful of individuals. In 2011, we transitioned the PaySwarm Community to the W3C and renamed the group to the Web Payments Community Group. To be clear, Community Groups at W3C are never officially sanctioned by W3C’s membership, but they are where most of the pre-standardization work happens. The purpose of the Web Payments Community Group was to incubate payment technologies and lobby W3C to start official standardization work related to how we exchange monetary value on the Web.
What started out as nine people spread across the world has grown into an active community of more than 150 people today. That community includes interesting organizations like Bloomberg, Mozilla, Stripe, Yandex, Ripple Labs, Citigroup, Opera, Joyent, and Telefónica. We have 14 technologies that are in the pre-standardization phase, ready to be placed into the standardization pipeline at W3C if we can get enough support from Web developers and the W3C member organizations.
In 2013, a number of us thought there was enough momentum to lobby W3C to hold the world’s first Web Payments Workshop. The purpose of the workshop would be to get major payment providers, government organizations, telecommunication providers, Web technologists, and policy makers into the same room to see if they thought that payments on the Web were broken and to see if people in the room thought that there was something that we could do about it.
In November of 2013, plans were hatched to hold the worlds first Web Payments Workshop. Over the next several months, the W3C, the Web Payments Workshop Program Committee, and the Web Payments Community Group worked to bring together as many major players as possible. The result was something better than we could have hoped for.
The Web Payments Workshop
In March 2014, the Web Payments Workshop was held in the beautiful, historic, and apropos Paris stock exchange, the Palais Brongniart. It was packed by an all-star list of financial and technology industry titans like the US Federal Reserve, Google, SWIFT, Yandex, Mozilla, Bloomberg, ISOC, Rabobank, and 103 other people and organizations that shape financial and Web standards. In true W3C form, every single session was minuted and is available to the public. The sessions focused on the following key areas related to payments and the Web. The entire contents of each session, all 14 hours of discussion, are linked to below:
- Introductions by W3C and European Commission
- Overview of Current and Future Payment Ecosystems
- Toward an Ideal Web Payments Experience
- Back End: Banks, Regulation, and Future Clearing
- Enhancing the Customer and Merchant Experience
- Front End: Wallets – Initiating Payment and Digital Receipts
- Identity, Security, and Privacy
- Wrap-up of Workshop and Next Steps
I’m not going to do any sort of deep dive into what happened during the workshop. W3C will be releasing a workshop report in the next few weeks that will do justice to summarizing what went on during the event. The rest of this blog post will focus on what will most likely happen after that workshop report comes out.
The Next Year in Web Payments
The next step of the W3C process is to convene an official group that will take all of the raw input from the Web Payments Workshop, the papers submitted to the event, input from various W3C Community Groups and from the industry at large, and reduce the scope of work down to something that is narrowly focused but will have a very large series of positive impacts on the Web.
This group will most likely operate for 6-12 months to make its initial set of recommendations for work that should start immediately in existing W3C Working Groups. It may also recommend that entirely new groups be formed at W3C to start standardization work. Once standardization work starts, it will be another 3-4 years before we see an official Web standard. While that sounds like a long time, keep in mind that large chunks of the work will happen in parallel, or have already happened. For example, the first iteration of the RDFa and JSON-LD bits of the Web Payments work are already done and standardized. The HTTP Signatures work is quite far along (from a technical standpoint, it still needs a thorough security review and consensus to move forward).
So, what kind of new work can we expect to get started at W3C? While nothing is certain, looking at the 14 pre-standards documents that the Web Payments Community Group is working on helps us understand where the future might take us. The payment problems of highest concern mentioned in the workshop papers also hint at the sorts of issues that need to be addressed for payments on the Web. Below are a few ideas of what may spin out of the work over the next year. Keep in mind that these predictions are mine and mine alone, they are in no way tied to any sort of official consensus either at the W3C or in the Web Payments Community Group.
Identity and Verified Credentials
One of the most fundamental problems that was raised at the workshop was the idea that identity on the Web is broken. That is, being able to prove who you are to a website, such as a bank or merchant, is incredibly difficult. Since it’s hard for us to prove who we are on the Web, fraud levels are much higher than they should be and peer-to-peer payments require a network of trusted intermediaries (which drive up the cost of the simplest transaction).
The Web Payments Community Group is currently working on technology called Identity Credentials that could be applied to this problem. It’s also closely related to the website login problem that Mozilla Persona was attempting to solve. Security and privacy concerns abound in this area, so we have to make sure to carefully design for those concerns. We need a privacy-conscious identity solution for the Web, and it’s possible that a new Working Group may need to be created to push forward initiatives like credential-based login for the Web. I personally think it would be unwise for W3C members to put off the creation of an Identity Working Group for much longer.
Wallets, Payment Initiation, and Digital Receipts
Another agreement that seemed to come out of the workshop was the belief that we need to create a level playing field for payments while also not attempting to standardize one payment solution for the Web. The desire was to standardize on the bare minimum necessary to make it so that websites only needed a few ways to initiate payments and receive confirmation for them. The ideal case was that your browser or wallet software would pick the best payment option for you based on your needs (best protection, fastest payment confirmation, lowest fees, etc.).
Digital wallets that hold different payment mechanisms, loyalty cards, personal data, and receipts were discussed. Unfortunately, the scope of a wallet’s functionality was not clear. Would a wallet consist of a browser-based API? Would it be cloud-based? Both? How would you sync data between wallets on different devices? What sort of functionality would be the bare minimum? These are questions that the upcoming W3C Payments Interest Group should answer. The desired outcome, however seemed to be fairly concrete: provide a way for people to do a one-click purchase on any website without having to hand over all of their personal information. Make it easy for Web developers to integrate this functionality into websites using a standards-based approach.
Shifting to use some Bitcoin-like protocol seemed to be a non-starter for most everyone in the room, however the idea that we could create Bitcoin/USD/Euro wallets that could initiate payment and provide a digital receipt proving that funds were moved seemed to be one possible implementation target. This would allow Visa, Mastercard, PayPal, Bitcoin, and banks to not have to reinvent their entire payment networks in order to support simple one-click purchases on the Web. The Web Payments Community Group does have a Web Commerce API specification and a Web Commerce protocol that covers this area, but it may need to be modified or expanded based on the outcome of the “What is a digital wallet and what does it do?” discussion.
The three major areas where it seemed like work could start at W3C revolved around verified identity, payment initiation, and digital receipts. In order to achieve those broad goals, we’re also going to have to work on some other primitives for the Web.
For example, JSON-LD was mentioned a number of times as the digital receipt format. If JSON-LD is going to be the digital receipt format, we’re going to have to have a way of digitally signing those receipts. JOSE is one approach, Secure Messaging is another, and there is currently a debate over which is best suited for digitally signing JSON-LD data.
If we are going to have digital receipts, then what goes into those receipts? How are we going to express the goods and services that someone bought in an interoperable way? We need something like the product ontology to help us describe the supply and demand for products and services on the Web.
If JSON-LD is going to be utilized, some work needs to be put into Web vocabularies related to commerce, identity, and security. If mobile-based NFC payment is a part of the story, we need to figure out how that’s going to fit into the bigger picture, and so on.
Make a Difference, Join us
As you can see, even if the payments scope is very narrow, there is still a great deal of work that needs to be done. The good news is that the narrow scope above would focus on concrete goals and implementations. We can measure progress for each one of those initiatives, so it seems like what’s listed above is quite achievable over the next few years.
There also seems to be broad support to address many of the most fundamental problems with payments on the Web. That’s why I’m calling this a breakthrough. For the first time, we have some broad agreement that something needs to be done and that W3C can play a major role in this work. That’s not to say that if a W3C Payments Interest Group is formed that they won’t self destruct for one reason or another, but based on the sensible discussion at the Web Payments Workshop, I wouldn’t bet on that outcome.
If the Web Payments work at W3C is successful, it means a more privacy-conscious, secure, and semantically rich Web for everyone. It also means it will be easier for you to make a living through the Web because the proper primitives to do things like one-click payments on the Web will finally be there. That said, it’s going to take a community effort. If you are a Web developer, designer, or technical writer, we need your help to make that happen.
If you want to become involved, or just learn more about the march toward Web Payments, join the Web Payments Community Group.